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Informing, promoting, and communicating activities and results with multiple audiences (citizens, media, and stakeholders). The aim of communication is to engage with stakeholders, attract the best experts, generate market demand, raise awareness of how public money is spent and show the success of European collaboration.
Science communication (SciCom) is defined as the use of appropriate skills, media, activities, and dialogue to produce one or more of the following personal responses to science (the AEIOU vowel analogy): Awareness, Enjoyment, Interest, Opinion-forming, and Understanding.
“We recognise the recent advances in locating public communication of science as part of a continuous process, rather than as a terminal, residual stage of knowledge production. We believe no sharp distinction (even more so in the age of digital media and open science challenges) can be drawn between public and non-public communication of science communication of science, that is, communication within and between scientific communities. There is a rich variety and diversity of science communication, encompassing informal, pleasurable communication as well as that which is targeted and strategic.”
Responsible research and innovation is an approach that anticipates and assesses potential implications and societal expectations with regard to research and innovation with the aim to foster the design of inclusive and sustainable research and innovation. […] Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) implies that societal actors (researchers, citizens, policy makers, business, third sector organizations, etc.) work together during the whole research and innovation process in order to better align both the process and its outcomes with the values, needs and expectations of society.
European Comission (2018) The EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. Science with and for Society. In Schuijff, M. Dijkstra, A.M. (2020) Practices of Research and Innovation: A Review. Sci Eng Ethics 26, 533-574.
In this definition, the European Commission (2018) further stated that there are five characteristics or dimensions of RRI, also labelled keys, which make RRI tangible: public engagement, open access, gender, ethics, and science education. Governance of the whole process is a sixth dimension, or key, which serves to integrate the other five. Schuijff, M. Dijkstra, A.M. (2020)
RRI is a process where all societal actors (researchers, citizens, policy makers, business) work together during the whole research and innovation (R&I) process in order to align its outcomes to the values, needs and expectations of European society.
There is no universally accepted definition of research integrity, although it is generally understood to relate to the performance of research to the highest standards of professionalism and rigour, in an ethically robust manner.
The behaviours espoused by ethics and research integrity should ultimately ensure the accuracy and truth of the research record in publications and elsewhere. Luhmann called this ‘system trust’, which facilitates researchers, policy makers, educators and the public on to confidently draw from, and build on, the research results of others without needing to check their reliability before they use them. briefing_paper_research_integrity_web.pdf (scienceeurope.org)
Research integrity is defined by a set of good research practices based on fundamental principles: honesty, reliability, respect and accountability (ALLEA, 2017).
Open access is the practice of providing online access to scientific information that is free of charge to the user and is reusable.
Open Access refers to online, free of cost access to peer reviewed scientific content with limited copyright and licensing restrictions
Free availability of scholarship on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these research articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself” (Boai, 2002).
The aim of non-discrimination law is to allow all individuals an equal and fair chance to access opportunities available in a society. This means that individuals or groups of individuals which are in comparable situations should not be treated less favourably simply because of a particular characteristic such as their sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.
Inclusion, or inclusivity, refers to a sense of welcome and respect within a given collaborative project or environment (such as academia) where diversity simply indicates a wide range of backgrounds, perspectives, and experiences, efforts to increase inclusion go further to promote engagement and equal valuation among diverse individuals, who might otherwise be marginalized. Increasing inclusivity often involves minimising the impact of, or even removing, systemic barriers to accessibility and engagement.
Gender equality means women, men, boys, and girls in all their diversity are equal and should have equal opportunities to thrive and equal participation in our society where gaps have been identified in specific sectors including employment, pay, care, power, and pensions. By closing these gaps, gender equality would bring more jobs and higher productivity.
Gender equality is a principle which also empowers women and girls since they are still facing challenges such as sexist hate speech, discrimination, violence, and harassment. The inclusion of a gender perspective in all EU policies and processes is essential to reach the goal of gender equality.
Gender mainstreaming ensures that policies and programs maximize the potential of all – women and men, girls and boys, in all their diversity. The aim is to redistribute power, influence, and resources in a fair and gender-equal way, tackling inequality, promoting fairness, and creating opportunity.
Research data should be ‘FAIR’, that is findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable. H2020 Online manual refers to: The FAIR Data Principles – FORCE11
Fair Principles: Describes making scholarly materials Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (FAIR). ‘Findable’ and ‘Accessible’ are concerned with where materials are stored (e.g. in data repositories), while ‘Interoperable’ and ‘Reusable’ focus on the importance of data formats and how such formats might change in the future.
FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Re-usable): “The FAIR Data Principles are a set of guiding principles in order to make data findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable” (Wilkinson et al., 2016). “These principles provide guidance for scientific data management and stewardship and are relevant to all stakeholders in the current digital ecosystem. They directly address data producers and data publishers to promote maximum use of research data” (Liber, 2017).
Horizon Europe requires the projects it funds to make their research data FAIR. In 2018, the European Commission Expert Group on FAIR Data published a comprehensive report: Turning FAIR into Reality
Source: Publications (eua.eu)
Dissemination means sharing research results with potential users – peers in the research field, industry, other commercial players and policymakers). By sharing your research results with the rest of the scientific community, you are contributing to the progress of science in general. Whereas exploitation is the use of results for commercial purposes or in public policymaking.
Citizen Science refers to the general public engagement in scientific research activities when citizens actively contribute to science either with their intellectual effort or surrounding knowledge or with their tools and resources. socientize white paper on citizen science.pdf (europa.eu)
Citizen science refers to projects that actively involve the general public in the scientific endeavour, with the goal of democratizing science. Citizen scientists can be involved in all stages of research, acting as collaborators, contributors or project leaders.
Citizen Science | FORRT – Framework for Open and Reproducible Research Training.
Citizen science is a broad EU policy covering Open Science activities in which citizens participate in the scientific research process as: observers, funders, in identifying images or analysing data, or by themselves providing data. Publications (eua.eu)